Al-Chemist Ungu

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ACID RAIN


Nowadays, we know there was one of the environmental problem that usually called by Acid Rain. But, we rarely know the true means about this, what causes of it, what effects, and which solutions that can we do to reduce the danger of the acid rain. Because of that, i want to share to you about the "ACID RAIN" and its characteristic, of course in this blog. So, thanks for check this out yeaaaa... I hope you enjoy this...
 Hmm... WHAT IS ACID RAIN??
Scientists call the term of acid rain as acid deposition, which caused by airborne acidic pollutants and has highly destructive results. It is discovered first in 1852, when the English chemist Robert Agnus invented the term.  From then until now, acid rain become an issue of intense debate among policy makers and scientists.
Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is commonly known, occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and oxidants to form various acidic compounds. These compounds then fall to the earth in either dry form (such as gas and particles) or wet form (such as rain, snow, and fog). This characteristic is that it cannot be seen, its invisible gas came out from automobiles or coal-burning power plants. It can also moves easily, and affecting the ather area, even far from the source polluted area. so that it makes problems and debates between country that fight over polluting each other's environment.
For years, acid rain has been studied by much scientists to find the tru causes of it. Some of them conclude that the primarily responsible was the human. The level of acid rain vary from one area or country to the others.Even because the acid rain can remove easily, the problem is definitely a global one.
There is also two depositions of acid rain form. The first is wet deposition, it is any form of precipitation that remove acids from the atmosphere and deposits them on the Eart’s surface. And then the dry sepositions or polluting particles and gases stick to the ground via dust and smoke in the absence of precipitation. This form of deposition is dangerous however because precipitation can eventually wash acid pollutants into streams, lakes and rivers.
After we know about what is acid rain, then we must analyzed, WHAT CAUSES ACID RAIN??
Acid deposition can occur via natural sources like volcanoes but it is mainly caused by the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide during fossil fuel combustion. When these gases are discharged into the atmosphere they react with the water, oxygen, and other gases already present there to form sulfuric acid, ammonium nitrate, and nitric acid. These acids then disperse over large areas because of wind patterns and fall back to the ground as acid rain or other forms of precipitation.

The gases responsible for acid deposition are normally a byproduct of electric power generation and the burning of coal.  As such, it began entering the atmosphere in large amounts during the Industrial Revolution and was first discovered by a Scottish chemist, Robert Angus Smith, in 1852. In that year, he discovered the relationship between acid rain and atmospheric pollution in Manchester, England.
Although it was discovered in the 1800s, acid deposition did not gain significant public attention until the 1960s and the term acid rain was coined in 1972. Public attention further increased in the 1970s when the New York Times published reports about problems occurring in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire.
In the United States today, roughly 2/3 of all (SO2) and 1/4 of all (NOx) come from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels, like coal.

For many years, there was considerable debate and disagreement over what caused acid rain.  Recent scientific work, however, has helped to clarify this. The primary causes of acid rain are sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  These chemicals are released by certain industrial processes, and as a result, the more industrialized nations of  Europe as well as the US suffer severely from acid rain. Most sulfur dioxide comes from power plants that use coal as their fuel.  These plants emit 100 million tons of sulfur dioxide, 70% of that in the world.
Automobiles produce about half of the world's nitrogen oxide.  As the number of automobiles in use increases, so does the amount of acid rain.  Power plants that burn fossil fuels also contribute significantly to nitrogen oxide emission.
Though human causes are primarily responsible for acid rain, natural causes exist as well.  Fires, volcanic eruptions, bacterial decomposition, and lightening also greatly increase the amount of nitrogen oxide on the planet.  However, even the gigantic explosion of Mt. St. Helens released only about what one coal power plant emits in a year.
Once the tiny pollutant molecules have entered the atmosphere, they can travel for thousands of miles.  Eventually, the particles will combine with other compounds to produce new, often harmful, chemicals.
Acid rain comes down to the earth in the form of rain, snow, hail, fog, frost, or dew.  Once it reaches the ground, the acidity in the substance can harm and even destroy both natural ecosystems and man-made products, such as car finishes.
THEN, WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN??

Acid rain is having harmful effects both on people and on the natural ecosystems of the world.  Scientists today are convinced that acid rain is severe in many areas, and that it is having an adverse effect on the environments of those locations.
The problem of acid rain is rapidly spreading.  Because it is mainly caused by industrial processes, automobiles, and power plants, those countries that are developed have the most severe acid rain problems.   However, as the undeveloped nations begin to industrialize, acid rain will increase greatly.
Determining just how much the planet is being hurt by acid rain is very difficult because the ecosystem that it affects are so diverse and complex.
Many ecosystems are affected by acid rain.  Bodies of water, such as lakes and rivers, see many of their inhabitants die off due to rising acidity levels.
Acidic water also ruins plant nutrients, hurting plants' ability to survive and to give life to other organisms.
Human-made products are also experiencing degradation from acid rain.  Cars can lose their finishes, and outdoor statues are beginning to rust.
Acid rain's effects are destructive and long lasting.  Though scientists have studied lakes, streams, and many other natural ecosystems to prove its negative effects, acid rain continues to be produced and is increasing in many parts of the world.
a.      Acid Rain Effect of Aquatic Ecosystems
After studying the Hubbard Brook Forest and other areas today, there are several important impacts of acid deposition on both natural and man-made environments. Aquatic settings are the most clearly impacted by acid deposition though because acidic precipitation falls directly into them. Both dry and wet deposition also runs off of forests, fields, and roads and flows into lakes, rivers, and streams.
As this acidic liquid flows into larger bodies of water, it is diluted but over time, acids can accrue and lower the overall pH of the body.  Acidic water leaches aluminum and other toxic metals from rocks, soil and decaying plants (see Adirondack Council Report p. 15), where it otherwise would have remained bound to other elements in a harmless state.  If the pH of a lake drops below 4.8, fish are unable to absorb oxygen from the water, slowly suffocating.  It is estimated that around 50,000 lakes in the United States and Canada have a pH below normal (about 5.3 for water). Several hundred of these have a pH too low to support any aquatic life.
b.     Acid Rain Effect on Trees and Plants
Aside from aquatic bodies, acid deposition can significantly impact forests. As acid rain falls on trees, it can make them lose their leaves, damage their bark, and stunt their growth. By damaging these parts of the tree, it makes them vulnerable to disease, extreme weather, and insects. Acid falling on a forest’s soil is also harmful because it disrupts soil nutrients, kills microorganisms in the soil, and can sometimes cause a calcium deficiency. Trees at high altitudes are also susceptible to problems induced by acidic cloud cover as the moisture in the clouds blankets them.
Damage to forests by acid rain is seen all over the world, but the most advanced cases are in Eastern Europe. It’s estimated that in Germany and Poland, half of the forests are damaged, while 30% in Switzerland have been affected.
c.      Acid Rain Effect on Buildings
Finally, acid deposition also has an impact on architecture and art because of its ability to corrode certain materials. As acid lands on buildings (especially those constructed with limestone) it reacts with minerals in the stones sometimes causing it to disintegrate and wash away. Acid deposition can also corrode modern buildings, cars, railroad tracks, airplanes, steel bridges, and pipes above and below ground.
Acid rain is rain consisting of water droplets that are unusually acidic because of atmospheric pollution – most notably the excessive amounts of sulfur and nitrogen released by cars and industrial processes. Acid rain is also called acid deposition because this term includes other forms of acidic precipitation such as snow.
SO, BASED ON THE KNOWLEDGE WE HAVE KNOW BEFORE ABOUT THE ACID RAIN... NOW, WE CAN CONCLUDE THE SOLUTIONS WE CAN DO TO MINIMIZE THE THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN
Modern science has proven that acid rain is a dangerous and highly destructive problem.  As a result, various ways to limit acid rain have been invented, and some are now being used.
Debate over acid rain and ways of preventing it have raged between environmentalists and corporations.  Businesses such as power companies and car makers oppose controlling acid rain because they fear the effects on their profits.
But in some cases, industries have attempted to curb acid rain production.  The Northern States Power company began working to reduce acid rain in the 1980s, and has invested over a billion dollars to that end.
There are many ways that power plant companies like Northern States can reduce acid rain creation.  They can use coal with a low sulfur content, they can remove the sulfur from smoke their plants release, and they can limit processes known to generate high levels of acid rain.
Policy makers and environmental experts are now looking into the best methods to limit acid rain.
Environmentalists advocate the installation of sulfur cleaning scrubbers in factories, washing sulfur out of coal, and finding new methods of burning coal.  Power plant operators are looking for less expensive solutions to the problem.
Individuals can help by conserving energy or driving their cars less.  Governments can pass laws restricting pollution levels, or can use a variety of methods such as tradable emission permits to reduce acid rain.  Whatever way it is done, acid rain will certainly have to be limited in the future.


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