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Lithium-Ion Motorcycles

Advanced battery technologies are enabling a much cleaner alternative to pollution-spewing gas-powered motorcycles and could help promote a larger-scale move toward electric vehicles. Yesterday, an electric scooter with motorcycle-like performance made by Vectrix, based in Newport, RI, was delivered to its first customer. And next year at least two motorcycles powered by advanced lithium-ion batteries will be sold in the United States.
Although conventional motorcycles get extraordinary gas mileage--with many getting more than 50 miles per gallon--they emit more pollution than even large SUVs because they aren't equipped with equivalent emissions-control technology. Indeed, with new emissions standards, SUVs are 95 percent cleaner than motorcycles, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. So while motorcycles could help reduce oil consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions, these gains come at the price of dirtier air. Electric motorcycles eliminate tailpipe emissions, keeping pollution out of the city, and they can be powered with clean sources of electricity. What's more, electricity costs less than gasoline. Vectrix estimates that it will cost riders just a couple of cents a day to operate its scooter.
All three battery-powered vehicles are limited in speed. The fastest is the Vectrix scooter, which can go 65 miles per hour. The speeds could be increased if the manufacturers were to change the gear ratio, which is currently designed for urban settings and motocross, for which acceleration is more important than sustained high speed.
Electric motorcycles are practical today because of advances in battery technology. Lead-acid batteries, which have been used in electric motorcycles in the past, are very heavy, provide a short range, and last for only a couple of years. The Vectrix scooter ($11,000) uses nickel metal hydride batteries--the same type used now in the popular Toyota Prius hybrid. This type of battery is lighter than lead-acid batteries and more durable: Vectrix claims it has a 10-year lifetime. Lithium-ion batteries, in turn, are lighter than nickel metal hydride, and new chemistries have made them durable as well, lasting as long as or longer than nickel metal hydride batteries. The Vectrix scooter weighs about 200 kilograms, while the lithium-ion-powered Enertia ($12,000), made by Brammo Motorsports of Ashland, OR, weighs just 125 kilograms. Brammo hopes that the lighter electric motorcycles will be appealing to those who would be intimidated by a heavier bike.

The batteries' light weight also makes them appealing for motocross bikers. Zero Motorcycles, based in Scotts Valley, CA, sells an off-road motorcycle ($7,000) that easily makes 20-meter jumps and will be featured in the extreme-sports showcase X Games, says Neil Saiki, who invented the motorcycle. It weighs just 54 kilograms, which is made possible in part by leaving the battery charger off the motorcycle. The company plans to sell a street version next year that includes the charger. The batteries Zero Motorcycles uses are known for their high power. They come from A123 Systems, of Watertown, MA, the company that makes the batteries used in a record-holding electric drag-racing motorcycle that can finish a quarter mile in just 8.17 seconds, reaching 156 miles per hour. The Enertia uses battery cells and packs from Valence Technologies, based in Austin, TX, whose cells have been used in the Segway personal transport.

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